Depression Counselling and Therapy Services
Major Depressive Disorder (AKA clinical depression) is characterized by the experience of a major depressive episode, which involves either (1) a depressed mood or sadness and/or (2) a loss of interest or pleasure in daily activities. These symptoms may be recognized by one’s self or observed by others. In children and adolescents, irritable mood may be present. Other symptoms of depression include:
- Changes in weight or appetite.
- Sleep difficulties, such as insomnia (inability to sleep) or hypersomnia (excessive sleep).
- Restlessness, pacing, rapid talking or slowing of physical movements.
- Fatigue or loss of energy.
- Feelings of worthlessness or excessive or inappropriate guilt.
- Diminished ability to think or concentrate, or difficulty making decisions.
- Recurrent thoughts of death or suicidal ideation.
Persistent Depressive Disorder (AKA Dysthymia) is another kind of depression which is characterized by a longstanding and low grade mood. Other symptoms of Dysthymia may include:
- Poor appetite or overeating.
- Insomnia or hypersomnia.
- Low energy or fatigue.
- Low self-esteem.
- Poor concentration or difficulty making decisions.
- Feelings of hopelessness.
Children and adolescents who experience depression show similar symptoms. In addition, they may exhibit an irritable mood and have behavioural issues such as acting out at home or school or experience a flat mood and be withdrawn from others.
Bipolar Disorder, (AKA manic depression or manic-depressive disorder) is characterized by cycling between manic episodes and depression episodes.
A manic episode includes:
A period of persistently elevated or irritable mood and may include symptoms such as:
- Inflated self-esteem or grandiosity.
- Decreased need for sleep.
- More talkative or pressure to keep talking.
- Flight of ideas or racing thoughts.
- Increased goal-directed activity or restlessness.
- Excessive involvement in activities that have high potential for painful consequences (e.g., spending sprees, sexual indiscretions).
These manic episodes can range from mild to severe. During severe episodes of mania, hospitalization may be necessary.